Capture1.JPGReactivity Lab

Aim: Using 4-5 elements, one will try to see which element reacts fastest to acid. To do this, we will put these elements in a beaker filled with acid and time when this reacts, and when this reaction ends.

Independent Variable
The different metals that are carried out.
Zinc, copper, aluminum, magnesium, Iron.
Dependent Variable
Time it stops bubbling.
Use a stop watch.
Constant Variables
Same time, same amount of acid, same amount of metals. Same person observing, same person timing.
3 minutes, Time with stopwatch, One observer, and one timer.
Hypothesis
If the iron was dropped in the acid solution then the Iron will slowly dissolve away because the acid will break the particle bonds, at a fast rate.
If the Aluminum is dropped in then acid , it will very slowly react because the acid isn’t very powerful on the particles of the Aluminum.
If the copper is put into the acid then the copper will dissolve quickly because the bonds and particles aren’t very strong.
If the magnesium is put in the acid then the magnesium will react very quickly because the particles are strong.
If the zinc is put into the acid then it will react slower because the power of the acid is too strong for the acid.


Method

1.
Gather all equipments needed.
2. Get two grams of each metal with a spatula and make sure it’s as even as possible
3. Get 25ml of acid and put it in the test tubes
4. Add the two grams of the metal onto the 25ml of acid
5. Observe and see when it stops bubbling
6. Record
7.
Repeat steps 2-6 with all the metals

Diagram of Apparatus


Observations Table

Element
Magnesium
Copper
Iron
Zinc POWDER
Zinc SOLID
Time
3minutes 30sec
0
0
3min 11sec
30 sec
Observation
-A lot of bubbles
-Strong and strange odour
-steam coming out
-beaker filled up with heat

-slight and weak odour
-no reaction
-nothing is happening

-very strong odour
-slow reaction and bubbles
-changes the color of the water to red

-mixes and dissolves into the water very well
-a few bubbles
-no big reactions
-changes the color to a silvery tone
-stays in a solid condition

Graph
Capture2.JPG
Conclusion

In this lab one has successfully answered our aim. We clearly found out, which metal reacted to the hydrochloric acid the fastest. We thought that magnesium would react the fastest, and from the results we found out that it did. We did this by putting the 5 different metals in the acid. Our hypothesis was also proved right; the magnesium was proved to react more and fizz more bubbles in the acid. Then in the hypothesis, it said the copper would react the quickest after the magnesium, but after our tests the second one to react quickest, was the zinc powder. This showed that the hypothesis wasn’t very accurate. Although one has learnt from this. We saw that these reactions were done because they were the transition metals. These have more reactivity than normal metals; these metals want the hydrogen atom. Another reason is that it is and alkaline metal with +2 electrons, this makes it easier to react with elements. All it needs to do is lose two electrons and have a stable octet in its valence shell. When the hydrochloric acid reacts with the acid is that it reacts with the two chlorine atoms so it can become stable. These are the reasons for the reaction.

Evaluation

Was this a fair test?
I think we made a pretty fair test because we followed most of the points we made in our controlled variables. We made sure one person pours the element in and fill the beaker with acid and the other one to make observations and time. If one person keeps the same job for the whole experiment, it makes it a fair test because they will know exactly how much to put the elements and acids in. One thing that didn’t make a fair test was that we had one element that was a solid while the others were all powders. Though they might’ve been the same elements, the type of matter can also affect the results.
Strength & Weaknesses

One thing we did well in this lab was that we tried to keep everything controlled. We also didn’t have any big troubles with the equipments in the lab. What was different from our lab from the others was that we didn’t put all the elements at once. We used the same beaker and just switched the elements around. This isn’t a bad idea but next time it could’ve been better if we got five small beakers and put the five elements in each beaker. Another weakness was that we used a mixture of solid and powder so that might’ve brought us up different results. Next time I think we should just stick to one of the types.
How valid is our method to collect the data?
I think our method is easy to follow and clearly tells you what to do in this experiment. Most of the steps are repetitive so you basically have to do the same things over and over just using different elements each time.
Is our data reliable?
I think our data is quite reliable except for the fact as I mentioned above, we used a mixture of powder and solid elements. That could’ve changed our data a bit but for everything else I think our data is quite reliable. We used a stop watch to time the exact time the elements started to react and when it stopped reacting. We judged this on how much it bubbles. Also, our data it clearly shows the magnesium was the most reactive and copper and iron the least.