How 5 metals react to acid?
By: Hiep Nguyen and Jamie Trees
Aim: To see the reactivity of five transition metals when you put all into hydro chloric acid.

Equipment List:
  • Beaker measuring 10ml
  • Five test tubes
  • 50ml of acid
  • Pieces of Copper
  • Pieces of Iron
  • Pieces of Aluminum
  • Pieces of Magnesium
  • Pieces of Zinc

Hypothesis:
Iron: If the a chunk of iron was dropped in the acid base then it will slowly melt away because the
acid breaks away the particles at a faster rate than water.
Aluminium: If the chunk of aluminium as dropped in the acid then It won't explode, the particles will slowly
move up but not as much of a drastic change because the acid isn't that powerful.
Copper: If the copper chunk was dropped into the acid then the copper won't
change and stay in the acid for a while because it can resist the the properties of the acid structure.
Magnesium: If the chunk of magnesium was dropped into the acid then it will start to bubble up and lose particles
at a faster rate because magnesium reacts to the acid in a faster rate.
Zinc: If the chunk of Zinc is dropped in hydro chloric acid then it, after a few minutes, will start to bubble because zinc is a element which can only resist the powers of acid for a few minutes

Method:
  1. We have to gather all the five metals which is going to be put in the acid.
  2. We get 10 ml of hydro chloric acid into a test tube.
  3. We put the metal into the test tube and wait for 3 minutes.
  4. Wait and the record the observations of the reactivity of the metal
  5. We then repeat the experiment 4 times with other different metals.

Variable Table:

Type
What?
How?
Independent
The solids that we put in the acid
By getting different solids at different times
Dependent (what we measure)
The reactivity of each solids
Each of the elements will be put in the acid for 10 minutes
Controls/Constants (keep same)
· The acid
· The beaker
· From the acid it will be uncontaminated and in the same volume
· The beakers will be clean and not having other liquids and solids in them



Observations



Metal
Observations
Observations After 24 hours
Aluminum
It is being constricted slowly within twenty seconds. Nohings happening after that.
The aluminium dissolved completely, but only the part that was in the water, some was stuck onto the side of the test tube.
Zinc
Bubbles are released right away as the metal was put in. The metal was as if it is a carbonated. So much of the zinc is dissolving at such a fast rate. The entire water is covered with zinc particles, it is very hard to see the water and the zinc. The water is pure white.
The zinc after it's large reaction had no reaction and soon was just zinc sitting inside the acid, nothing was happening.
Copper
There was one large bubble right away. Bubbles are forming around copper at 25 seconds. A big piece fell off at thirty seconds. Bubbles were released at 1 minute.
The copper was the same as zinc and as before, it did not have quite a reaction at all, just air bubbles, which is natural.
Iron
Bubbles were released right as the metal was in. Tiny air bubbles are being released like the acid was releasing more bubbles than copper. More amounts of these bubbles are being put out faster as the seconds go by.
The nail for a while was stuck to the bottom of the test tube, it did not have such a large reaction and now the air bubbles only come up when the test tube is touched.
Magnesium
As it is put in you can see the magnesium rush into dissolvong and made the acid turn bright white. You can see the water spinning as if or some movement just from the magnesium being put in. After five seconds the liquid starts to expand in the test tube, from this it means the liquidbubbled up to almost reaching the top. After two seconds after it bubbled up it began to heat up as the liquid ascended
The magnesium was dissolved within seconds after it was put in the test tube. There was nothing left to observe.
Which Element Was Most Reactive

In the order of how it's reaction was we had it to be, what reacted the most in the least amount of time. At first we had magnesium because as soon as it was put into the acid it began to react, it turned the acid pale white, it started to buble up the test tube, it started to heat the test tube to a quite hot temperature, and it had a sound of it bubbling. It was a chemical reaction though because of the change in colour and heat being put out. Next was zinc because after about ten seconds it began to bubble white and move the acid around, eventually it was difficult to see it. Next to that was iron because iron had a the same release of bubbles as soon as it was put in as the other metals but then after twenty second it began bubbling as if it was carbonated. After that it is copper, it only bubbled the entire time, after twenty five seconds a piece fell off, it could have been just because it was in liquid but we counted it anyway and so that is why copper was the fourth most reactive element in this experiment. Lastly it is aluminium, although aluminium had a great reaction that it dissolved much more than the other elements (excluding magnesium because it dissolved into the acid in less than a minute) the aluminium took almost all the time we measured to do anything and probably took a few hours to dissolve. Although it was great at reacting, it just wasn't fast enough for that, that is why the other four are ahead. So it is then

  1. Magenesium
  2. Zinc
  3. Iron
  4. Copper
  5. Aluminium

Conclusion:
From all the tables above, people can see that all the metals that we have put in have a different reaction to the acid. We can see that there is only one similarity about the metals. When the metals are dropped into the acid, there are bubbles released right away. That could be just the air that was captured inside the metal but that could be a theory. We can see that the speed of each metal dissolving is different. Some are at fast rate, some at a very slow rate. You can also see just how acid is powerful. We put the zinc into the acid, it dissolved for 20 seconds and the water was full of zinc particles. We think that the information that we have shown that the power of acid and the reaction of the five metals


Evaluation


  1. The data we have is quite reliable from the technique and safe edicate while the experiment was taking place. The test tubes were eashed before the experiment was taken place, the amount of metal was aproximately the same size between each of them. The timing was taken by an accurate stop watch.
  2. The method is at least legitimate to recording data. There are different test tubes, so not to have contaminated the other metals. Then while the first metal is put in one test tube while observations are taken as the experiment is taking place. After the first metal the experiment continues the same with the other metals. This creates a quite relieble method, if simultaniuosly then the metals could not be observed in such a detailed way.


Weakness
Improvement
A weakness is that for one of the experiments, somehow the measurements for the acid in one of the test tubes, the problem was that the acid was quite less than the other volumes of acid put in. This was discovered however after the metal was put into the test tube showing little to no results.
The measurements could have been changed because in the middle between these two test the beakers used to collect the acid were changed, one only going to 20 while the other going to 10, this is that for each experiment there should only be one beaker of the same size.
There might have been different amounts. Because the amounts were slightly different. This is because the collected metals were in different sizes. To compensate the metals such as zinc had to have two put in to the acid while copper needed one.
The metals could be cut are divided into the same size. The metals, more easily, just be measured from a scale and see how the metals weigh and match that with the other metals.
Th magnesium wasn't found as a large piece together, we had to use a powder instead.
We could look for a while and find someone who sold the magnesium as a whole instead of powder.

4.
This was a fair test because the volumes of acid were measured using a beaker excluding the one incident with a lower volume. The observations were taken well with times taken and were taken quickly and with the correct times. This also was a fair test because the metals were put into the same time as the stop watch started so the times were quite accurate.